The Great Trek. Frontier farmers (Boers) pour across the Orange River, however, the majority of the Afrikaans-speaking settlers (Afrikaners) remain in the Cape.
(16 Dec) Pretorius beats Dingaan, Zulu king at the Battle of Blood River.
Boers concentrate in Natal.
British annex Natal as colony
Transorangia annexed as Orange River Sovereignty. Smith defeats Pretorius at the Battle of Boomplaatz.
Sand River Convention confirms independence of Transvaal Republic.
Bloemfontein Convention restores independence of Transorangia as Orange Free State.
British annex Basutoland as Crown Colony at request of King.
Diamond rush to Kimberley
Annexation of Kimberley to Cape Colony, now self-governing. Cecil Rhodes, aged 18, joins diamond rush, followed by Alfred Beit (in 1875).
Proclamation of Transvaal as British Crown Colony. Arrival of Frere.
British forces invade and (1887) annex Zululand, soon incorporated in Natal, now self-governing.
Kruger leads Transvaal rebellion against British rule: First Boer War (‘First War of Independence’).
Peace talks after the Battle of Majuba (27 Feb). Pretoria Convention: Transvaal Republic obtains limited independence.
London Convention: Transvaal (South African Republic: ZAR) obtains greater independence.
Gold Rush to Witwatersrand begins
Rhodes obtains British Royal Charter for his British South Africa Co. to exploit Lobengula’s territory (Mashonaland and Matabeleland).
Formation of Wernher, Beits and Co, soon to become the principal Rand mining house.
Rhodes BSA Co. (Chartered Company) sends pioneers to occupy Lobengula’s country, renamed Rhodesia.
Rhodes obtains promise of Bechuanaland from Liberal Government.
Loch visits Johannesburg
Rhodes decides Kruger ‘must go’.
Loch visits Pretoria
Rhodes and Jameson visit England.
Kruger toasts Kaiser.
Robinson arrives in Cape Town as High Commissioner
Rand magnates join Uitlander’s National Union.
Fall of Liberal Government.
Salisbury forms Unionist Government; Chamberlain appointed Secretary for Colonies.
Rhodes requests Chamberlain to transfer Bechuanaland.
Harris arrives in London.
First interview of Harris with Chamberlain.
Dispatch of first ‘missing telegram’.
Interview of Maguire with Chamberlain; dispatch of second ‘missing telegram’.
Second interview of Harris with Chamberlain.
Dispatch of third ‘missing telegram’.
Kruger announces closing of Drifts as from 1 October
Third interview of Harris with Chamberlain.
African Chiefs arrive in England
Interview of Chiefs with Chamberlain.
Chamberlain requests information on Johannesburg situation from Robinson.
Johannesburg leaders visit Rhodes to plan rising. Rhodes confides plan to Bower.
Chamberlain grants Rhodes ‘railway strip’ in Protectorate and permission to recruit from Bechuanaland Border Police. Jameson appointed Resident Commissioner in ‘strip’; begins organising police camp at Pitsani.
First contingent of mounted police set out for Pitsani from Bulawayo.
Fourth ‘missing telegram’.
Fifth ‘missing telegram’.
Robinson’s dispatch on Johannesburg situation
Sixth ‘missing [flag] telegram’.
‘Great Indaba’ at Colonial Office.
Transfer of Protectorate; seventh ‘missing [fireworks] telegram’. Drifts reopened.
British Bechuanaland annexed to Cape.
Jameson visits conspirators in Johannesburg.
Moberly Bell appoints Younghusband Times Special Correspondent in Johannesburg.
Harris and Beit sail for South Africa.
First contingent of mounted police arrive at Pitsani from Bulawayo.
Chamberlain confirms Robinson’s plan for dealing with rising.
Uitlander leaders send first telegram to Jameson postphoning rising.
Willoughby leaves Rhodesia to take up command at Pitsani.
Flora Shaw sends ‘hurry up’ telegram to Rhodes.
Transfer of Bechuanaland Border Police completed at Mafeking.
Rhodes receives second ‘hurry up’ telegram from Flora Shaw. Harris and Beit land in South Africa.
President Cleveland’s ultimatum on Venezuela. Chamberlain’s ‘hurry up’ letter.
18 – 20 December
Newton in Cape Town
Interview of Fairfield with Maquire.
Eighth ‘missing [hurry up] telegram’.
Younghusband sees Rhodes. Rhodes quarrels with Bower.
Rhodes telegraphs Jameson, rising will take place as arranged.
Leonard Manifesto; rising postphoned.
Uitlanders forbid Jameson to move. Chamberlain warns Salisbury of imminent rising.
Fairfield hears rumor of ‘fizzle’ of rising and of possible ‘filibuster’.
Jameson receives ‘Ichabod’ telegram; replies ‘Unless I hear to the contrary shall leave tomorrow evening’. Holden arrives at Pitsani.
Heany arrives at Pitsani. Chamberlain warns Robinson of possible ‘filibuster’. Jameson invades Transvaal.
Chamberlain hears news of Raid; leaves for London at midnight. Boers order Jameson to retire.
Robinson orders Jameson to retire. Chamberlain repudiates Jameson. Reform Committee set up in Johannesburg. Rhodes offers resignation.
Jameson again ordered to retire. Battle of Krugersdorp. Times publishes ‘letter of invitation’.
Surrender of Jameson at Doornkop.
Robinson arrives in Pretoria.
Robinson meets Kruger.
Chamberlain promises inquiry into Raid. Reform Committee accept Kruger’s terms.
Kruger arrests members of Reform Committee.
Times publishes Jameson’s Ride.
Raiders sent to England for trial.
Rhodes arrives in England; existence of ‘Hawksley’ telegrams disclosed to Colonial Office.
Rhodes sees Chamberlain.
Chamberlain publishes Uitlander dispatch; invites Kruger to England.
Opening of Parliament.
Chamberlain’s ‘fire-hose’ speech
13 – 25 April
Bower in London.
Trial of Reformers opens in Pretoria. Invitation to Kruger finally withdrawn.
Death sentences passed on Reform leaders.
Death sentences commuted. First installments of ‘Bobby White’ documents published.
Parliament debates Transvaal disclosures. Rhodes prepares to quell Matabele rising.
Further reductions in sentences.
Publication of Transvaal Green Book.
Robinson and Bower visit England.
Chamberlain sees ‘Hawksley’ telegrams; offers to resign.
Reform leaders released from gaol.
Jameson and officers committed for trial at Bow Street.
Telegrams returned to Hawksley.
Rhodes resigns from Board of Chartered Company.
Report of Cape Committee of Inquiry into the Raid.
Trial of Jameson and officers opens.
Jameson and officers sentenced.
Chamberlain moves for Select Committee to inquire into Raid.
End of session; Committee of Inquiry lapses.
Sir Alfred Milner takes over as British High Commissioner at the Cape.
Chamberlain sees Rhodes
Committee of Inquiry into Raid re-appointed.
16 February First public session of Inquiry.
Death of Fairfield.
Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee; Kruger releases remaining prisoners.
Pageant and Procession.
Close of examination of witnesses by Committee.
Report of Committee of Inquiry
Debate on Colonial Office vote.
26 – 27 July
Debate on Report; Chamberlain’s ‘white-washing’ speech.
Death of Rosmead.
Kruger elected for fourth term as President of Transvaal. Death of Mead.
Milner back in London for ‘holiday’.
31 May- 5 Jun
British Cabinet decides to send 10 000 men to defend Natal.
Penn Symons pushes up troops to Dundee.
Kruger calls up Transvaal burghers, and persuades Steyn to follow suit in Free State.
Chamberlain challenged to produce ‘Hawksley’ telegrams. White lands at Durban.
British mobilise 1st Army Corps etc.
Kruger sends ultimatum
Expiry of ultimatum and outbreak of war.
Boers begin siege of Kekewich at Kimberley and of Baden-Powell at Mafeking.
Penn Symons gives battle at Talana. Möller surrenders.
Battle of Elandslaagte.
Battle of Rietfontein.
‘Mournful Monday’: Joubert outmanoeuvres White at Battle of Ladysmith (Modderspruit) and Carleton is forced to surrender at Nicholson’s Nek.
Buller lands at Cape Town.
White’s ‘field forces’ accepts siege at Ladysmith.
Botha wrecks armoured train between Frere and Chieveley.
Battle of Willow Grange.
End of Botha and Joubert’s raid southwards into Natal. Methuen’s first battle: Belmont.
Methuen’s second battle: Graspan.
Holdsworth, with Linchwe’s Africans, attack Boer laager at Deerdeport.
Methuen’s third battle: Modder River.
Hunter’s night raid on Long Tom besieging Ladysmith.
Gatacre’s mishap at Stormberg.
Methuen’s repulse at Magersfontein.
Buller’s first reverse: Colenso.
Roberts appointed to succeed Buller as C-in-C in South Africa, with Kitchener as Chief of Staff.
Baden-Powell’s abortive attack on Game Tree Fort.
German mail-steamer Bundesrath seized by Royal Navy.
‘Hawksley dossier’ published in L’Independence Belge; move for fresh inquiry into Raid.
Boers attack Caesar’s Camp and Wagon Hill (Platrand) at Ladysmith.
Roberts and Kitchener land at Cape Town.
Battle of Spion Kop
Vaal Krantz captured, then evacuated.
Roberts begins great flank march.
Buller’s fourth attempt to relieve Ladysmith.
French relieves Kimberley.
Battle of Paardeberg.
Surrender of Cronjé at Paardeberg.
Buller relieves Ladysmith.
Battle of Poplar Grove. Kruger escapes.
Battle of Driefontein.
Capture of Bloemfontein.
Robert’s first proclamation: amnesty except for leaders.
Boer council of war at Kroonstad.
Death of Joubert.
De Wet ambushes Broadwood at Sannah’s Post.
Surrender of Royal Irish at Reddersburg.
Roberts resumes march to Pretoria.
Mahon’s relief column sets out for Mafeking.
Buller resumes advance.
Roberts occupies Kroonstad, beats off Eloff’s attack on Mafeking.
Buller outmanoeuvres Boers from Biggarsberg.
17 May Mahon and Plumer relieve Mafeking.
Annexation of Orange Free State proclaimed: renamed Orange River Colony.
Roberts captures Johannesburg.
Piet de Wet captures Spragge and Irish Yeomanry at Lindley.
Roberts captures Pretoria. Release of prisoners.
Christiaan de Wet’s success at Roodewal.
Battle of Diamond Hill
Buller turns Drakensberg position and occupies Volksrust.
Surrender of Scots Greys at Zilikat’s Nek.
Steyn and de Wet escape from Brandwater Basin.
Roberts begins advance towards Komatipoort.
Surrender of Prinsloo to Hunter in Brandwater Basin.
Ian Hamilton fails to prevent de Wet’s escape.
Buller defeats Botha at Bergendal (Dalmanutha).
Release of last 2000 British prisoners at Nooitgedacht.
Buller captures Lydenburg.
Pole-Carew reaches Komatipoort.
Kruger sails for France on Dutch cruiser.
Buller sails for England.
Formal proclamation at Pretoria of annexation of Transvaal.
De Wet defeated at Bothaville.
Kitchener succeeds Roberts as C-in-C in South Africa.
Roberts to succeed Wolseley as C-in-C at home.
De la Rey and Smuts surprise Clements at Nooitgedacht.
Kritzinger enters Cape Colony.
27 Jan – 26 Mar
French’s drive in Eastern Transvaal.
Smuts captures Modderfontein. Massacre of Africans.
De Wet’s ‘invasion’ of Cape Colony.
Abortive Middleburg peace talks between Kitchener and Botha.
First drive in Northern Free State begins.
Milner sails for leave in England.
First drive in Cape Colony northwards.
Kitchener’s proclamation of banishment for Boer leaders captured armed after 15 Sept.
Kritzinger driven out of Cape Colony.
Smut’s invasion of Cape Colony via Kiba Drift.
Scobell captures Lotter’s commando (Groenkloof).
Smuts cuts up 17th Lancers at Elands River Poort; Botha cuts up Gough’s force at Blood River Poort.
Botha attacks Forts Itala and Prospect.
Botha escapes northwards.
Execution of Commandant Lotter. Capture of Scheepers.
Benson killed at Blakenlaagte.
Ian Hamilton appointed Kitchener’s Chief of Staff.
National Scouts inaugurated.
Kroonstad-Lindley blockhouse line completed.
De Wet captures Yeomanry at Tweefontein.
New drive in Eastern Orange River Colony (Orange Free State). De Wet breaks out.
Second drive in Eastern Orange River Colony (Orange Free State).
De la Rey captures Methuen at Tweebosch.
First drive in Western Transvaal.
Death of Rhodes. Destruction of ‘Hawksley’ telegrams?
Battle of Rooiwal.
Boer peace delegates’ first meeting at Pretoria.
Last drives in North Eastern Orange River Colony (Orange Free State).
Zulu attack on Holkrantz.
End of Ian Hamilton’s last drive in Western Transvaal.
First meeting of Boer delegates at Vereeniging.
Final meeting at Vereeniging.
Surrender terms signed at Melrose House in Pretoria (see image below).